Essential Vitamins and Minerals for Vegans 纯素者必须关注的营养素

Essential shopping list vegans

Vegan diets are great, but there are several essential nutrients you need to know about and in some cases supplement.  A 2009 article in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1 did a nice overview of this, and I’ve summarized the results below:

纯素饮食固然好,但是可能会导致某些营养的缺失,所以纯素食者应该考虑补充这些营养素。2009年《美国临床营养杂志》发表了一篇总结纯素食者的身体优点与缺点的文章。下面是我总结的最重要的几种。

Vitamin B-12 维生素B12

Recommendation: 2.4 micrograms (mcg) / d 2

建议:2.4 微克/天

The prevalence of Vitamin B12 deficiency is higher in vegans than in omnivores.  Since B12 is only reliably found in animal products, the article recommends supplementation or eating fortified foods to avoid this.  Read more about the necessity of B12 and where to get it here.

纯素食者的B12缺失发生率比不吃素的人高。B12最可靠的来源是肉,因此《美国临床营养杂志》的文章建议纯素食者补充维生素或吃加料食物。多看一些B12的消息在这儿

Vitamin D 维生素D

Recommendation: 600-800IU/day3 Vitamin D3 (safe levels up to 4000IU per day for adults)

建议:600-800IU (International Unit“IU”是国际单位)的维生素D3 (4000IU一下是安全的)

Vegans tend to be deficient in Vitamin D, with just 1/4 the intake of omnivores on average. But they are not alone, especially in places where people don’t get adequate sun exposure (~94% of all middle-aged and older adults in Beijing and Shanghai are Vitamin D deficient). 4 If you don’t want to stand outside in the winter or eat fish, supplements are essential for long-term health.  Buy Vitamin D3, as D2 is not as bioavailable.  D3 is produced from either fish or lambs wool derivative called lanolin.  I consider the later to be in the vegan spirit, it’s an “animal product” but you don’t have to slaughter sheep to harvest the wool.  I avoid D3 made from fish products if possible.

纯素食者易于缺失维生素D, 平均摄取量是不吃素的人的25%。 但是,他们不是唯一缺失维生素D的人群。生活在缺乏足够阳光的地方也很容易缺失维生素D, 因为人们只能通过直接晒太阳或吃鱼来吸收维生素D。在北京和上海,94%的中老年人都缺少维生素D! 如果你不能常常晒到太阳或者不常常吃鱼的话,那么为了你的长期健康补充维生素D是必需的。

维生素D 有两种:D3和D2。人体吸收D3的效果比D2好,所以买维生素D时最好买D3。 另外,D3来自于鱼或羊毛脂。我自己尽可能不买鱼制品。羊毛脂具体来说也不算纯素因为是动物产品。但是因为不用杀羊提取羊毛脂,我自己觉得是算素的。

Vitamin D really is critical when it comes to immunity, bone health, and cancer prevention. You can read more about the benefits and recommended intakes here from Dr. Saint-Cyr, family practitioner based in Beijing.

维生素D也是增强免疫力,防止骨质疏松,以及预防癌症的关键。

关于更多的维生素D的信息,大家还可以在Caint-Cyr大夫 (北京国际医疗中心的家庭医生)的博客上查询。

Calcium 钙质

Recommendation: 800mg/d for women 17-50 and men up to 71, 1,000mg/d for women above 50 and men above 71, 1,300mg/d for adolescents 5

建议:

女士17-50岁和男士71岁以下:800毫克/天

女士50岁以上和男士71岁以上:1000毫克/天

青年人(18岁以下)1000毫克/天

Vegans tend to fall short on the recommended intake of calcium.  In vegans with low calcium intake, a higher rate of fractures and lower bone mineral density compared to non-vegans has been reported.  However, for vegans consuming at least 525 mg calcium/d, this difference disappears.  Vitamin D is also essential for bone health, so vegans who get the amount of Vitamin D and calcium recommended by the Institute of Medicine should have no issue with bone density.

纯素食者平时摄取的钙质量达不到标准。跟不吃素的人相比,钙质量摄取低的纯素食者的骨折率高,骨头矿物质密度低。但是,每天摄取525毫克以上的钙质的纯素食者就没有这些差异。另外,为了吸收钙质维生素D是必需的。摄取足够维生素D和钙质的纯素食者应该不会有什么身体问题。

Vegan foods containing calcium are abundant. For example:

含有钙质的纯素食品很丰富,比如:

Source: 6

I take 400mg/d in supplement form just in case.  You can take calcium carbonate or calcium citrate.  Calcium carbonate should be taken with meals, and avoid taking more than 500 mg at a time for optimal absorption. 7

以防我的饮食中含有的钙质量不够,我自己天天吃400毫克钙质。钙质有两种:碳酸钙和柠檬酸钙。吃碳酸钙的时候应该注意搭配饭而且不为了优化吸收每次的摄取量不能高于500毫克。柠檬酸钙就没有这些要注意的问题。

Non-vegans also take note, the median intake of calcium for many Americans, especially girls 9-18, women 51-70, and men and women over 70, tend to fall below the recommended amount. 8  9 In China a national survey reported less than 5% of people reached the adequate intake for calcium. 10

不吃素的人也应该关注钙质的摄取。很多美国人每日的钙质摄取量少于推荐的标准,尤其是9-18岁,51-70岁的女士,以及70岁以上的老年人。在中国只有不到5%的人口摄取足够的钙质。

Omega-3: DHA and EPA 脂肪酸DHA/EPA

Recommendation: 0.5-1.8g DHA+EPA per day 11, 1.1 g/d – 1.6 g/d ALA per day 12

建议:每天0.5-1.8 克 脂肪酸 EPA+DHA, 每天1.1-1.6 克 脂肪酸 ALA

Vegans tend to have low blood concentrations of EPA and DHA, as these two omega-3 fatty acids are only found in seafood, eggs, and certain kinds of seaweed and kelp.

纯素食者容易缺少EPA和DHA,因为只有海鲜、鸡蛋和几种海带含有这两种十分必需的脂肪酸。

Most nutritional powders and supplements advertising Omega-3 fatty acids only contain ALA, which converts poorly to EPA and DHA in the body.  There are vegan supplements for DHA/EPA available made from algae, but they tend to be slightly more expensive than the more common EPA/DHA supplements made from fish oil.

大部分标志着“Omega-3”的营养品只含有脂肪酸ALA。人体可以把ALA转化EPA和DHA,不过效果不太好。所以,纯素食者应该补充这两种脂肪酸。

最常见的富含EPA和DHA的营养品都是鱼制品。最近也有一些提供商销售海带制成的含EPA和DHA的营养品。鱼之所以含有EPA和DHA是因为他们吃海带之类的食物。所以人也可以直接吃海带摄取EPA和DHA。

The article advises a diet rich in ALA as well as a DHA supplement.

《美国临床营养杂志》的文章建议我们的膳食应该包括含有丰富ALA的菜,同时补充DHA。

请看下面的表查询含有丰富ALA的植物油。

Source: 13

DHA is generally considered safe, although in some studies it has raised the overall level of LDL cholesterol in subjects.  I would imagine the benefits outweigh any dangers in this case though, as DHA is proven to be important for long-term cardiovascular health and eye and brain function.

一般认为DHA是安全的,不过有一些研究表明DHA会提高人的低密度脂蛋白 (不好的胆固醇)水平。我自己觉得因为DHA对心血管、眼睛和大脑的长期健康的帮助是已经得到验证的,因此它对人的身体健康是利大于弊的。

Iron 铁

Recommendation: Enough to supplement dietary intake, according to specific needs of your age and gender:

建议:按照个人性别、年龄和每天食物中铁的摄取量,再补充适量铁

Source: 14

Table borrowed from: Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Iron. National Institutes of Health Dietary Supplements.

数据来源:美国的国家卫生研究所

While it is true that the iron found in meat (heme iron) is better absorbed by the iron found in plants (non-heme iron), according to the article vegans do not have a higher rate of iron deficiency relative to omnivores.  But this doesn’t mean it’s not a problem.  A study of German vegans found up to 40% of young women suffering from iron deficiency anemia. 15 Worldwide, 80% of all people are estimated to be iron deficient, with anemia rates of up to 30%. 16  In China in 2002, 15.8% of men and 23.3% of females were anemic, with similar rates in urban and rural areas. 17 Rates of anemia for Chinese children living in rural areas is shockingly high, with one study showing an average of 34.5% in poor counties in Ningxia and Qinghai. 18

虽然肉含有的铁比植物含有的铁能更好被人体吸收,但是根据《美国临床营养杂志》的文章证明,纯素食者跟非素食者的患贫血症的概率一样。但是,缺失铁还是一个比较广泛的问题。不管吃肉还是吃素,大家都应该关注铁的摄取。

在德国一群纯素食女试验者中,40%缺失了铁。科学家估计在全世界人口中80%缺少铁,30%贫血。2002年在中国,15.8%男士和23.3%女士贫血,而且城市居民和农民贫血率差不多一样。在中国的一些农村地区小孩的贫血率高得惊人。一个研究报告指出宁夏青海贫困地区的小孩平均的贫血症率达到34.5%。

Iron deficiency is really not fun, trust me, I’ve been there.  Fatigue, lack of energy, lowered immunity… the list of symptoms is long and unpleasant.  Since women of childbearing age are especially at risk of iron deficiency, I take a 10 mg/d vegetarian iron supplement just to be on the safe side.

贫血真的很辛苦,我自己也经历过。症状很多:疲劳、低精力、低免疫力、不能集中注意力等。因为特别是生育年龄的女士处于贫血的危险,我自己每天补充10毫克纯素铁。

If you want to avoid taking yet another pill, vegan sources of iron are plentiful.  Try also eat foods high in Vitamin C, which greatly improves the absorption of that non-heme plant iron.

如果你厌恶吃营养补充品,那么吃一些丰富自然铁的蔬菜。再搭配含有维生素C的食物,因为维生素C会促进铁的吸收。

Zinc 锌

Vegans tend to have lower zinc intake than omnivores, but don’t appear to suffer any particular health effects because of this.  The phytates found in whole grains, seeds, and legumes bind to zinc and decrease its bioavailability, so vegans eating a lot of these foods may want to emphasize eating foods fortified or naturally rich in zinc.

纯素食者的锌摄取量没有非素食者大,不过没有科学家报告显示对身体有任何影响。整粒的谷物、子、豆类含有的肌醇六磷酸会减少或妨碍锌的吸收。素食者应该考虑少吃这些食物,多吃含有丰富锌的食物。

Too many pills?

补充太多?

Yes, the list of supplements can sound overwhelming at first.  However, with the exception of B12, these nutrients are generally important to consider for non-vegans as well.  True, you can get all the nutrients you need from food, but I consider the recommended supplements here a “just in case” safety measure for your health.

第一次提到纯素补充营养好像有点复杂。不过除了B12,非素食者也应该考虑补充上文提到的营养因素。其实吃自然的饮食你可以摄取所有必需的营养。我仅仅把营养补充当做保证健康的一种方法。

Lest you be discouraged by the deficiencies common vegans mentioned above, let me list the overwhelming benefits of a vegan diet reported in the article (as compared to non-vegans)

虽然纯素食者会缺失一些营养,但是我认为纯素膳食利大于弊。下面我总结《美国临床营养杂志》报告的纯素膳食对身体的好处:

  • Higher intakes of the following nutrients: folic acid, fiber, vitamins C and E, potassium, magnesium, phytochemicals, iron
  • 维生素C、E、钾、镁、健康的植物化学物,铁的摄取量都比非素食者高
  • Lower intake of saturated fat and overall calories
  • 饱和脂肪和卡路里的摄取量都比非素食者低
  • Thinner
  • 比非素食者苗条
  • Lower cholesterol levels (total + LDL)
  • 总胆固醇水平比非素食者低
  • Lower blood pressure
  • 高血压率比非素食者低

To me the necessity of supplements is acceptable given the benefits of eating vegan.  But if you really opposed to pills of any kind, you don’t need to go 100% vegan to improve your health.  Most of the benefits of veganism are associated with increased fruit and vegetable, soy, legume, whole grain and nut intake.  Increase these and cut out the processed foods and sugar, and you’re on your way to a better you.

因为纯素膳食对身体有很多的好处,我自己可以接受补充一些维生素矿物质。 但是如果你完全反对用不自然的食品补充营养,你不一定要完全变成纯素。大多纯素带来的好处在于水果、蔬菜、豆制品、整粒的谷物以及坚果。如果你多吃这些食物,少吃加工食品、糖和盐,你会得到各种各样的身体好处。

References

  1. Craig WJ. Health effects of vegan diets. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009, 1627S-33S.
  2. National Institute of Health and Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Vitamin B12.
  3. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. Institute of Medicine, Nov 2010.
  4. Lu L, et al. Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration and Metabolic Syndrome Among Middle-AGed and Elderly Chinese Individuals. Diabetes Care. 32,7:1278-1283, 2009.
  5. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. Institute of Medicine, Nov 2010.
  6. Composition of Foods. USDA Nutrient Data Base for Standard Reference, Release 21.
  7. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. Institute of Medicine, Nov 2010
  8. Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Calcium. Office of Dietary Supplements, National Instituted of Health. Updated 1/19/2011.
  9. Bailey RL, Dodd KW, Goldman JA, Gahche JJ, Dwyer JT, Moshfegh AJ, Sempos CT, Picciano MF. Estimation of total usual calcium and vitamin D intakes in the United States. J Nutr. 2010 Apr;140-4:817-22.
  10. He Y, Zhai F, Wang Z, Hu Y, et al. Status of dietary calcium intake of Chinese residents. National Institute of Nutrition and Food Safety, China CDC. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 卫生研究. 2007 Sept; 36,5:600-2.
  11. Kris-Etherton PM, Harris WS, Appel LJ. Fish Consumption, Fish Oil, Omega-3 Fatty Acids, and Cardiovascular Disease. Circulation. 106:2747-2757, 2002.
  12. Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Health. Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health, Updated Oct 28, 2005.
  13. Kris-Etherton PM. Harris WS, Appel LJ. Fish Consumption, Fish Oil, Omega-3 Fatty Acids, and Cardiovascular Disease. Circulation. 106:2747-2757, 2002.
  14. Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium and Zinc. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2001.
  15. Waldmann A, Koschizke JW, Leitzmann C, Hahn A. “Dietary Iron Intake and Iron Status of German Female Vegans: Results of the German Vegan Study. Nutrition and Metabolism. 2004. 48,2:103-108.
  16. Stoltzfus RJ. Defining iron-deficiency anemia in public health terms: reexamining the nature and magnitude of the public health problem. J Nutr 2001;131:565S-7S.
  17. Piao J, Lai J, Xu S, et al. Study on the Anemia Status of Chinese Population. Institute of Nutrition and Food Safety, Chinese Center for Disease Control. Acta Nutrimental Sinica, 2005.
  18. Luo R, Zhang L, Chengfang L, et al.  Anemia in Rural China’s Elementary Schools: Prevalence and Correlates in Ningxia and Qinghai’s Poor Counties. Working Paper 215. Rural Education Action Project, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Feb 2010.

3 Responses to “Essential Vitamins and Minerals for Vegans 纯素者必须关注的营养素”

  1. Really nice summary, Tayler, and very cool blog! Wonderful goals you have here, and I love the goals to make it bilingual…I’m not vegan but this week my wife is forcing me to eat vegan! I do feel healthier, actually…and I agree about the use of many of those supplements above. I’m especially a fan of vitamin D and omega 3. I take 2,000IU a day of vitamin D, and 1 gram of omega 3 (fish oil)…

  2. Quora says:

    What is the best way to organize a fully nutritionally balanced vegan diet?…

    Luckily just eating a varied diet will take care of most of your nutritional needs, you don’t need to micromanage the exact proportions. I tend to put an emphasis on nutritionally dense foods like fruits, vegetables, and nuts/seeds at every meal, with…

  3. Susan C. Earles says:

    “The prevalence of Vitamin B12 deficiency is higher in vegans than in omnivores. Since B12 is only reliably found in animal products, the article recommends supplementation or eating fortified foods to avoid this.”

    -Yes, most vegetarians are at risk with b12 deficiency co’z they don’t consume animal based meat as source of protein. I’m a pure vegetarian before then i was diagnosed with b12 deficiency. My doctor friend recommend this mouth spray http://products.mercola.com/vitamin-b12-spray/ as source of vitamin b12 instead of b12 injection. So far, i’m great with this spray. ;)

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